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Famous Diamonds and Gemstones

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Abadia do Dourados diamond - A clear brown 104-carat Brazilian stone of the Minas Triangle area. Named for the nearest town.

 


Abadia do Dourados lilac diamond - Considered one of the most notable Brazilian stones. It is clear lilac and weighed 63 carats. It was sold in 1936, ultimately going to Africa, for 10,000 pounds.

 


Abadia do Dourados rose - Another rose stone weighing 33 carats from Brazil.

 


Abaeté diamond - A 238-carat rose-colored diamond found in 1926 in the Abaeté River in Minas Geraes, Brazil. A second notable rose-colored stone, weighing 80.3-carats was found in the same river in November, 1935, and sold in Rio for $12,500.

 


Akbar Shah - An ancient Indian diamond, once the property of Shah Akbar and Shah Jehan and inscribed with their names. Re-cut on 1866 to a drop shape of 71.70 cts., it was sold in 1867 to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

 


Barbara Heliodora - Name given to a 62.75-carat topaz, in honor of a romantic figure of 18th Century Brazilian history.

 


Barkly Breakwater diamond - A 109¼ ct. South African diamond found October 20, 1905, during the construction of a breakwater.

 


Black Prince’s Ruby - A large red stone with a rich background of history. It was first mentioned in 1367 when it formed part of the treasure of the King of Granada. It now occupies the most conspicuous position in the British Imperial State Crown, being located in the center of the front cross-patée. Until recent year it was believed to be a true ruby, when an inventory of the crown jewels revealed it to be red spinel.

 


Blue Giant of the Orient - Name given a 486-ct. Ceylon sapphire.

 


Brady diamond - A 330-ct. diamond found in January, 1902, at Brady’s Farm, Fourteen Streams, South Africa.
Braganza - A controversial stone belonging to the Portuguese crown jewels. Generally conceded to be a yellowish topaz it is supposed to be pear-shaped and weighs 1680 ct. However, some authorities contend that diamonds were well known in 1797 and it is unlikely that a mistake would have been made, that many large and brown to yellow stones have been found in the Abate River, where this was found, and that yellow topaz comes only from the Ouro Preto area. (It would be remarkable to find a yellow topaz that size even in Ouro Preto area). Hence, the secrecy with which is guarded is really the strongest evidence that it is not a diamond; it is strange that the matter has not been definitely cleared up long since. Also known as the King of Portugal’s diamond.

 


Burgess diamond - A 22-ct. South African diamond found in September, 1907, at Klipdam No. 1.

 


Carmo do Paranadia diamond - A brown Brazilian diamond found in November, 1937, in the Bededuro River, township of Carmo do Paranaiba, near Patos in Minas Gerais. In the rough it weighted 245 ct.

 


Carns diamond - A 107 ct. South African diamond of uncertain origin.

 


Colenso diamond - A nearly perfect 133 carat octahedral crystal presented to the British Museum by John Ruskin. Named after the first bishop of Natal.

 


Cuiabá diamond - A diamond weighing 60.75 ct. and of fine clear light rose color, found at Cuiabá, Minas Gerais, Brazil, a locality which rarely yields stones larger than 20 ct.

 


Cullinan diamond - World’s greatest diamond, found at Premier mine, South Africa, Jan. 25, 1905; weight before cutting. 3106 cts., or about 1.3 lbs. Named for Sir Thomas Cullinan discovered of the mine. Given by Transvaal Government to Britain’s King Edward VII in 1907 and cut in 1908 by Asscher in Amsterdam into 9 major gems and 96 small brilliants. The world’s largest cut diamond, Cullinan I, also called the Great Star of Africa, weight 530.2 cts., in mounted in the British Imperial Sceptre. The Cullinan II, the world’s second largest cut diamond, also called the Lesser Star of Africa, weight 317.4 cts., appears in the Imperial State Crown. Both are on permanent display in the Tower of London. Seven other major gems cut from the Cullinan belong to the Royal Family.

 


Dan Campbell diamond - A 192½ ct. South African diamond found at Gong Gong in April 1916.

 


Darcy Vargas diamond - An irregularly shaped, brown, 460 ct. Brazilian diamond, found at Coromandel, Minas Gerais, in the San Antonio River on the 8th of July, 1939, only 2 km. from the spot where Presidente Vargas was found. It was named in honor of the wife of the president of Brazil.

 


Darya-i-nur - “River of Light,” large, rose-cut diamond looted from Delhi in 1739 by Nadir Shah. May be identical with MOON OF THE MOUNTAINS, ORLOFF diamonds. Also see GREAT MONGUL.

 


DeLong star ruby - A 100-carat star ruby in the collection of New York’s American Museum of Natural History, named for the donors, Mrs. George Bowen DeLong. Stolen in 1964 in a notorious theft, it was eventually ransomed and restored to the collection.

 


Devonshire emerald - A large fine, uncut emerald crystal from Muso, Colombia, about two inches across and about the same in length. This Colombian emerald crystal weighs about 1383.95 carats, presented in 1831 by Dom Pedro, abdicated emperor of Brazil, to the sixth Duke of Devonshire. Loaned after 1936 to the British Museum (Natural History).

 

Dresden Green - Apple-green diamond of Indian origin bought in 1743 by Augustus the Strong. Weight, 41 carats. Set in a hat ornament, in the Green Vaults at Dresden, East Germany.

 


Dresden White - Square-cut white diamond, set in a shoulder knot, in the Green Vaults at Dresden, East Germany. Weight, 48 3/8 carats. Purchased by Augustus the Strong.


Edwardes ruby - A fine ruby crystal in the British Museum, given in 1887 by John Ruskin and named by him in honor of Major-Gen. Sir Herbert Edwardes.
 


English Dresden diamond
- A 119.5 ct. rough diamond from Minas Gerais, Brazil, which was acquired in 1857 by E. H. Dresden, and cut into a drop-form brilliant of 76.5 ct. It was then sold to the Gaekwar of Baroda.
 


Estrella de Minas diamond
- A 179.3 ct. diamond found in Minas Gerais in 1911.
 


Eugenie diamond - An oval 51 ct. brilliant first heard of as the property of Catherine II of Russia and given by her to Potemkin. Acquired by Napoleon III as a gift for his bride, the Empress Eug6nie, it was sold to the Gaekwar of Baroda after the collapse of the Empire, reputedly for $75,000.
 


Excelsior diamond - The second largest rough diamond ever found. It was an irregularly shaped piece with a large cleavage face, weighing 995.2 ct,, found, 1893, in the Jagersfontein mine. It was cut into 21 brilliants by I. J. Asscher & Co. in 1904 and the stones distributed; the largest weighed 69.68 ct.
 


Florentine diamond
- A yellow diamond, also known as the Austrian Yellow and the Tuscany, which was seen and described by Tavernier. A light yellow, 137.27-ct. double rose, it was stolen from the Austrian royal family about 1920.

 

Fura - This rough emerald was discovered in 1999 in Muzo, Colombia.  It is estimated to be a 15,000 carat emerald, considered to be the world's largest emerald and too unique and large to cut.  It weighs nearly five pounds and has been on exhibit internationally recently.
 


Gem of the Jungle sapphire
- A large blue 958-carat sapphire found in 1929 and cut into nine stones, the largest weighing 66.5 carats.
 


Gnaga Boh ruby
- A fine Burmese ruby which weighed 44 carats in the rough and 20 as a finished stone.
 


Goiaz - A large Brazilian diamond found in 1906 in southeastern Goiaz and which probably weighed about 600 carats. The finder believed the ancient legend about the resistance of diamonds to hammer blows on an anvil, and tested it in this way. About 100 carats were preserved and the largest cut into a brilliant of 8 carats.
 


Golden Dawn diamond - A 133-carat diamond found in the Vaal River in 1913 which was cut into an American-cut brilliant of 61 1/2 carats.
 


Great Mogul diamond - A 280-carat diamond seen by Jean Tavernier in 1655 in the possession of the Mogul Emperor Auranozeb. It may be the same stone now known as the ORLOV or the KOH-I-NOOR.
 


Great Table diamond - A legendary stone seen by Jean Tavernier and said to weigh 242 French carats.
 


Great White diamond - Also known as the Victoria and the Imperial diamond, a stone which showed up in London in 1884 and which probably originated in the Jagersfontein mine, according to Herbert-Smith. Two stones, one an oval brilliant of 184.5 carats, were cut from the 469-carat rough, and the larger was sold about 1900 to the Nizam of Hyderabad for a reputed $100,000.
 


Hope chrysoberyl - A flawless, yellowish-green 45-ct. chrysoberyl once said to be by far the finest cut example of this gem in existence. Once in the Hope collection, it is now in the British Museum (Natural History).
 


Hope diamond - The best known of the gems of this famous collection. A fine blue diamond, 45.52 ct. in weight, once in the Hope collection and sold in 1911 to Edward B. McLean of Washington, D.C. It was purchased from the McLean estate by Harry Winston and in 1948 was presented by him to the Smithsonian Institution, to encourage the formation of a national gem collection that might rival the British Crown Jewels. The stone is probably the larger portion of one bought by Tavernier and sold to Louis XIV in 1668. Stolen in 1792, it was never recovered, but this stone turned up in 1830 and for several reasons is believed to be the principal part of the original pear-shaped French gem.
 


Hope pearl
- The largest known precious pearl of modern times, it is a baroque pearl, nearly cylindrical in form, 2 inches in length and 4 1/2 inches in circumference; it weighs about 1800 grains. It is mostly white, but one end has a bronze tint. It was once in the Hope collection, and is now in the British Museum.
 


Idol's Eye diamond - Semi-round, blue-tinged diamond, present weight 70.20 cts., acquired in 1962 by Harry Levinson, Chicago jeweler. Earlier owners: Prince Rahab of Persia, British East India Company, Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey, Harry Winston, Mrs. May Bonfils Stanton of Denver.
 


Great Southern Cross pearls - A naturally formed cross of nine large intergrown pearls, which was found in a pearl oyster fished in 1886 from beds off the West Australian coast.
 


Jonker diamond - (Yonn'ker) A flawless 726 ct. diamond found in 1934 by Jacobus Jonker in alluvial deposits at Elandsfontein, near Pretoria, S. A., about three miles from the Premier mine. It was cut in New York by Lazare Kaplan & Sons into 12 stones, the largest of which, weighing about 125 ct., is also known as the Jonker diamond.
 


Jubilee diamond - An irregularly octahedron-shaped diamond found in 1895 at the Jagersfontein mine weighing 650.8 ct. and known at first as the Reitz diamond, after F. W. Reitz, the then president of the Orange Free State. The finished 245 ct. brilliant cut from it was renamed the Jubilee diamond in 1897, in honor of the sixtieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne.
 


Julius Pam diamond - A large diamond found in the Jagersfontein mine in 1889 which weighed 246 ct. in the rough and 123 ct. when cut.
 


Kennedy star
- Name given black 4-rayed diopside stars in India, supposedly because they were found on the day of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.
 


Keppoch charm stone
- An oval ball of rock crystal, stated by legend to have grown on the top of the head of a toad; it was dipped in water taken from St. Bridget's well, while a Gaelic incantation was pronounced, invoking the Apostles, the Virgin, the Trinity and the Angels.
 


Kimberley Diamond - Found as a 490-ct., champagne-colored rough at the Kimberley mine; cut to 70 cts. in 1921 and to 55.09 cts. in 1958. Sold by Baumgold Bros, in 1971 to a Texan.
 


Koh-i-noor - A famous diamond of the British crown jewels. Supposed to have come originally from the Golconda mines of India, it had a long and eventful history, before it was presented to Queen Victoria in 1850. Though it originally weighed about 800 carats, it has been reduced by several cuttings to about 109, but even with this great loss its proportions are far from ideal and its old historical shape has been destroyed.
 


La Pellegrina pearl - The name of one of the most beautiful pearls known. Perfectly round and white, it was last known to be in Russia at the beginning of the 19th Century.
 


La Peregrina - A large, pear-shaped 134-gr. Panamanian pearl belonging to Philip II and valued at 50,000 ducats. More recently sold for $37,000, and owned by Elizabeth Taylor of cinematic fame.
 


La Regente pearl - A large 337-grain egg-shaped pearl which was formerly among the French court jewels.
 


Lasarev diamond - The Orlov.
 


Lesotho diamond
- Brownish 601.25-ct. rough diamond, "larger than a golf ball," found in May 1967 by Ernestine Ramaboa in Lesotho, southern Africa. Bought by Harry Winston and cut by 1969 into 18 gems, the largest being an emerald cut of 71.73 cts.
 


Liberator diamond - A 155-carat white, well-formed diamond crystal, found in Venezuela in 1942, and the largest Venezuelan diamond found to that date.
 


Light of Peace diamond - 435-ct. rough diamond discovered in 1969, probably in Sierra Leone; bought by Zale Corporation and cut during 1970 and 1971 in New York into 13 fine white gems totaling 172.83 cts. The largest of them, the 130.27-ct. "Light of Peace," is the second largest pear-shaped diamond in the world; it was valued after cutting at $3,500,000.
 


Lightning Ridge opal - Also known as the "Red Flame," a famous large opal from the New South Wales locality.
 


Lilas amethyst - A 470-ct. amethyst, named for the first lady of the town of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
 


Litkie diamond - A 205 1/2 carat diamond crystal from the Good Hope diggings on the Vaal River, found in 1891.
 


Mattan diamond - Supposed to be a large Borneo diamond weighing 367 ct. discovered in 1787, and belonging to the Rajah of Mattan. More likely quartz.
 


Maxwell-Stuart topaz - A large colorless topaz weighing 369 ct. However, very large flawless topaz crystals, pale blue or colorless, have been found in Brazil and elsewhere, and such gems could be cut in any desired size; ten pounds would not be difficult to obtain, only to cut.
 


Mazarin diamonds - Eighteen diamonds willed to the French Crown by Cardinal Mazarin (1602-61); an inventory in 1691 included the Sancy (53-3/4 cts.), the Mirror of Portugal (25-3/8 cts.) and the Grand Mazarin (21 cts). Subsequent substitutions are surmised, for an inventory in 1791 listed different weights for 17 of the stones. All were stolen in 1792 and only the Grand Mazarin and four others of the gems are known to have been recovered.
 


Midnight Star
- Name given to a 117-carat purple star sapphire in the gem collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
 


Minas Gerais diamond - A white 172-1/2 ct. diamond found late in September, 1937, in a branch of the Santo Antonio River, not far from Coromandel, and named for the state in Brazil which has produced the largest stones.
 


Moon of the Mountains diamond - An Indian stone whose history, is probably fused with that of the ORLOFF 01 DARYA-I-NOOR. However, a stone called Moon of the Mountains was reportedly seen in London in 1942; it weighed 183 carat: had 45 facets in the crown; the reported selling price was only $21,000.
 


Morgan Collection - General name given the gem-stone collection in the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The basis of the collection was the gift, by J. Pierpont Morgan, of the two gemstone exhibits made up by Tif¬fany & Co. for World's Fairs in Paris in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Subse¬quently it has been enlarged by many gifts and is now one of the world's outstanding assemblages of gemstones, including the Star of India, the DeLong Star Ruby, the Patrice Emerald, the Harlequin Prince opal, a 74-carat chrysoberyl, a 70 carat spinel-red topaz, and so on. The series of colored sapphires is with¬out equal; most were the gift of J. P. Morgan, son of the original donor. Morganite was named by G. F. Kunz of Tiffany in honor of his patron, a recognition of his contribution to the nation and to gemology. See TIFFANY COLLECTION.
 


Nassak diamond - One of the famous Indian gems seized in 1818 by the East India Company. Originally an 89%-carat pear-shaped gem, it was recut into a 78%-carat triangular brilliant and bought in 1877 by the Marquis of Westminister. It passed into other hands and eventually was recut in New York into a 43.38-carat emerald-cut stone. In 1970, it was bought at auction by Edward Hand, of Greenwich, Conn., for $500,000.
 


New Star of the South - A greenish 140-carat diamond found in the Abaete River, Minas Gerais, in 1937.
 


Niarchos diamond - Pear-shaped, blue-white 128.25-carat gem cut from a 426.50-carat rough found in 1954 in the Premier mine, South Africa; bought by Harry Winston, and sold after cutting in 1957 to Stavros Niarchos of Greece.
 


Nizam - A controversial diamond said to have been owned by the nizams of Hyderabad, India, after its discovery at Golconda in 1835. Its original weight of 440 cts. was reduced to 340 cts. when the stone was polished with irregular facets. According to some accounts, the stone was cut again during the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and now weighs 277 cts.
 


Oppenheimer diamond - Uncut yellow crystal of 253.70 cts., found in South Africa in 1964, named for the late Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, given by Harry Winston to the Smithsonian Institution of Washington, D.C. "The largest uncut diamond in captivity."
 


O'Reilly diamond - First diamond found in South Africa; a 21-ct. yellow "pebble" found in 1866 near the Orange river by a boy, Erasmus Jacobs; bought by peddler John O'Reilly, who sold it for $2500 to Sir Philip Wodehouse. The stone was cut into a 10.73-ct. brilliant and eventually was purchased in 1966 by De Beers Consolidated Mines, which gave it to the Parliament of South Africa. Also known as the Eureka.
 


Orlov, Orloff or Orlow diamond (Or'loff) - One of the most famous of all Indian diamonds, one of the Russian crown jewels. It is cut in an odd shape to preserve the maximum weight, the "Hindu cut" or Indian cut, and it weighs 189.6 ct.
 


Orpin Palmer diamond - A 117.5 ct. diamond found in 1902 in the Vaal River estate.
 


Otto Borgstrom diamond - A 121.5 ct. diamond found in the Gong Gong diggings of South Africa in 1907.
 


Pam diamond - The third and smallest of three large diamonds found in the Jagersfontein mine. It was found before 1891 and weighed 115 ct. in the rough and 56 V2 ct. when cut.
 


Pasha of Egypt diamond - A 40-ct. brilliant, originally bought by Ibraham, viceroy of Egypt, for £28,000. It is said to be the finest stone of the Egyptian jewels.
 


Patos - A 324-carat brown Brazilian diamond found in the Sao Bento River, near Patos, Minas Gerais, on Oct. 31, 1937.
 


Paul I diamond - A ruby red Indian diamond of 10 ct. which was among the old Russian regalia.
 


Peace ruby - A 42-ct. ruby which was found in 1919 and which sold for £20,000.
 


Philip II diamond - A large diamond, supposedly purchased by Philip II in 1559, weighing 47.5 ct. According to Boethius DeBoot (1609), it was the largest diamond seen up to that time in Europe.
 


Pigott diamond - An Indian diamond weighing 49 ct. bought in 1818 by Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, and destroyed by his orders at his death. Named for Lord Pigott, who brought it from India. King calls it identical with the Nassak.
 


Pitt diamond - A 140 1/4 ct. Indian diamond which was discovered in 1701 in the mines at Partial, 150 miles from Golconda. It weighed 410 ct. in the rough. Originally bought by William Pitt, it was sold to the Due d'Orleans, Regent of France, in 1717, whence its other name, the Regent; now in the Louvre, Paris.
 


Polar Star diamond - A famous Indian diamond, now in Russian possession, said to weigh about 40 ct.
 


Portuguese diamond - Fluorescent, white, 127.02-carat diamond in Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
 


Presidente Vargas diamond - A large 726.60 ct. shapeless diamond found in Brazil in 1938 on the Rio Santo Antonio, and named for the Brazilian president. It has been cut into a number of small stones.
 


Punch Jones diamond - A 34.46 carat diamond reputedly found in 1928 at Peterstown, W. Va., by William P. Jones and only identified as a diamond much later. It is the second largest rough diamond ever found in the U.S.
 


Queen pearl - A large (93 gr.) fresh water pearl found in Notch Brook, near Paterson, N.J., in 1857, and sold by Tiffany & Co. to the Empress Eugenie of France for $2,500.
 


Red Cross diamond - A large canary yellow, square-shaped brilliant given by the Diamond Syndicate in 1918 to a sale for the benefit of the Red Cross. The type of cutting gives rise to the shape of a Maltese cross when viewed through the table facet. It weighs 205 carats.
 


Regent of Portugal - A Brazilian stone discovered about 1775 and cut into a circular 215-ct. brilliant; probably a topaz, not a diamond.
 


Regent pearl - Said to be a 337-grain pearl.
 


Reitz diamond - The JUBILEE, first named the Reitz in honor of F. W. Reitz, president, in 1895, of the Orange Free State.
 


Riccia diamond - A rose-colored 15 ct. diamond last reported belonging to the Prince de la Riccia of Italy.
 


Roebling opal - A large uncut dark colored mass of Virgin Valley, Nevada, opal, now in U.S. National Museum.
 


Rospoli sapphire - A large flawless, brownish rough sapphire in the collection of the Paris natural history museum, in the Jardin des Plantes. It weighs 135 ct. Variously called The wooden spoon seller’s, the Rospogli and the Ruspoli.
 


Royal Blue Star Sapphire of Venus - A 540-carat Ceylon gem said to have been valued at three and a half million dollars.
 


Ruby of the Black Prince - A British crown jewel, now known to be a spinel.
 


Saint Edward's sapphire
- The oldest stone of the British crown jewels, a 17th Century rose-cut stone of good color, mounted in the finial cross patee of the imperial state crown. According to tradition, it was worn in a ring by Edward the Confessor, who ascended the throne in 1042.
 


Sancy diamond - A famous Indian diamond of 55 carats, bought by Nicholas de Sancy in Constantinople about 1580; later associated with Henry III and Henry IV of France, James I and Charles I of England, Cardinal Mazarin and French crown jewels. Probably identical with a stone of virtually same weight bought in 1906 by William Waldorf Astor.
 


Shah - Famous Indian diamond shaped into an elongated octahedron with 15 facets and a groove by which it was fastened to a cord. It is slightly yellowish in color and weighs 88.7 ct. Acquired by Russia in 1829; now part of Russian Diamond Fund in the Kremlin, Moscow.
 


Shah of Persia - Yellow, cushion-cut, 99.52-ct. diamond, reportedly looted from India by Nadir Shah in 1739. Owned for many years by a Los Angeles jeweler, it was sold in 1965 by Harry Winston of New York to a private buyer.
 


Southern Cross diamond - A rose-colored diamond, weighing 118 carats reported to have been found in the Abaete River, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June, 1929.
 


Southern Cross - A famous pearl, said to have been bought for the Vatican collection, at a cost of $135,000.
 


Star of Egypt - A 106.75 carat Brazilian diamond which appeared on the London market in 1939. Said to have been discovered about 1850, it was acquired by the Khedive of Egypt, and at that time was oval in shape and weighed about 250 carats.
 


Star of Este - A small, but very perfect Indian diamond, weighing 26.16 carats. It belonged to the Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este.
 


Star of India - The largest blue star sapphire in the world, in the Morgan gem collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New York. It weighs 563.35 carats, is remarkably clean and flawless with a fine sharp star, and is light blue in color. Object of a notorious robbery, which was given considerable publicity, in 1964.
 


Star of Minas - A large 179.3-carat diamond found at Coromandel, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910.
 


Star of Murfreesboro - A blue diamond discovered at the Arkansas Diamond Mine by John Pollock, a tourist in 1964. It is 34.25 carats and measures eleven-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. Valued at over $95,000, it still belongs to the Pollock family.
 


Star of Sierra Leone - Gigantic 968.90-carat diamond found in the Kono mine of the nationalized Diamond Mining Co., Ltd., at Yengema, Sierra Leone, 14 Feb. 1972; at the time of its discovery, the third largest diamond rough ever found. Cut in 1974 by Harry Winston into a 143.20-carat emerald cut, a 53.96-carat pear shape, a 30.15-carat emerald cut and eight other stones.
 


Star of South Africa - The first large African diamond, which was found in the Vaal River diggings by a native and acquired in 1869 by Schalk Van Niekerk for 500 sheep, 10 oxen and a horse. It weighed 83 carats and was cut into a 47.7-carat pear-shaped brilliant and sold to the Countess of Dudley. Also known as the Dudley diamond.
 


Star of the South - The largest Brazilian diamond recovered before 1938. It was found in Bagagem, Minas Gerais in 1853 and weighed 261.88 carats. It was cut into a perfect colorless brilliant of 128.8 carats and sold to the Gaekwar of Baroda.
 


Stern diamond - Yellow, 223.6-ct. octahedron discovered in Dutoitspan mine in 1973; cut by I. Kagan & Co. (Pty.) Ltd. of Johannesburg. The main stone, a canary or champagne brilliant of 85.94 cts., was the largest ever cut in South Africa.
 


Stewart diamond - At the time of its discovery in 1872, the faintly yellowish 296-carat crystal was the largest that had been found in South Africa. It was cut into a brilliant weighing 123 carats.
 


Stuart sapphire - One of the British Crown jewels, the sapphire is now set in the back of the Imperial state crown. This fine blue stone is 1 1/2 inches long and 1 inch wide and is 104 carats.
 


Sultan Baber diamond
- A more or less mythical Indian diamond, which disappeared with the Great Mogul at the time of the Persian Conquest.
 


Taj-e-Mah diamond - Meaning "Crown of the Moon," a large Indian diamond from Gol-conda. Cut in a rosette, it was among the loot captured in 1739 by Nadir Shah and is believed to still be among the Iranian treasures. It is said to weigh 146 carats.
 


Taylor-Burton diamond - Pear-shaped, 69.42-ct. diamond bought at auction by Cartier of New York in October 1969 for $1,050,000 and immediately re-sold to actor Richard Burton as a gift for his wife, Elizabeth Taylor. The stone, a 240.8-ct. rough found in the Premier mine in 1967, had been cut by Harry Winston.
 


Tennant diamond - A large yellowish African diamond weighing 112 carats in the rough, which came into the possession of James Tennant, a London mineral dealer, in 1873. It was cut into a flawless brilliant of 68 carats.
 


The Arc diamond - A 381-carat South African diamond found at Gong Gong, June 1, 1921.
 


Tiffany collection - A collection of gems exhibited by Tiffany & Co. at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and subsequently purchased for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. It was awarded a gold medal at the exposition and now constitutes the nucleus of the Morgan gem collection, the largest portion of the gem collection of the museum. A second section was assembled for the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 and likewise subsequently presented to the American Museum of Natural History by J. Pierpont Morgan. The second collection was especially rich in American gem stones.
 


Tiffany diamond - A dark cape brilliant-cut Kimberley diamond of 128.51 carats. It was found about 1878 and remains in the possession of the firm for which it is named.
 


Tiger-eye diamond - A deep amber-tinted diamond found in 1913 at Droogefeld, Vaal River. It weighed 178.4 carats in the rough and was cut to a 61% carat brilliant.
 


Timur ruby - A red spinel, famous throughout the East for nearly 600 years as the Khiraj-i-Alam (Tribute of the World), which was presented to Queen Victoria in 1851 by the directors of the East India Co. It weighs 361 carats and is believed to be the largest spinel in the world. It has never been recut and still shows the Arabic inscriptions in Persian by which it was recognized many years after it was thought to have been lost.
 


Tiros - A town on the Abaeté River, in Minas Gerais, which has been the site of some notable finds and which has given its name to several stones. Tiros 1 was a brown crystal weighing 354 carats, found in 1938 or 1939; Tiros 2 was a rose-colored stone weighing 198 carats; Tiros 3 was a very valuable white, 182 carat stone; Tiros 4 was a clear brown 173 carat stone and Tiros lilac was a beautiful 12% carat lilac-colored stone.
 


Transvaal diamond
- Champagne-colored, pear-shaped, 67.89-carat stone cut from a 240-carat rough found in the Premier mine, South Africa; bought for $430,000 in 1976 by Mrs. Victoria Wilkerson, wife of a Pacific-Northwest industrialist.
 


Twelve Mazarins - Twelve stones of the French crown jewels which were recut from the then popular roses at the time of Louis XIV, under the direction and to the design of Cardinal Mazarin. It is suggested that this was done in an attempt, apparently successful, to encourage the local Parisian gem industry. They seem to have disappeared and nothing is known of them in recent times.
 


van Zyl diamond - A 229 1/4 carat diamond found Dec. 19, 1913, at Cawood's Hope, Pniel Estate, South Africa.
 


Victoria diamond - A diamond from disputed origin, originally weighing 457 1/2 carats in the rough.  It was eventually purchased and cut into the largest possible brilliant cut weighing 184.5 carats in a slightly rectangular cushion cut.
 


Victory diamond - A 770-carat, fine quality white diamond found in January, 1945, in Sierra Leone, Africa. It was then called the largest alluvial diamond ever found.
 


Webster Kopjie diamond
- A 124-ct. South African diamond found in 1907.
 


Welcome Stranger
- Name of 200-lb. gold nugget, heaviest recorded, found in Victoria, Australia, in 1869.
 


White Saxon brilliant - A large, unusually-cut diamond weighing 49.71 ct., on display with the Saxon Crown Jewels in the Green Treasury, Dresden. It has an eight-angled table on flat, four-sided pyramidal base.
 


Williamson diamond - Deemed the finest pink diamond in the world, a 54-carat rough given in 1947 to Princess Elizabeth by Dr. John T. Williamson; she had it cut into a 23.60-carat brilliant.
 


Wonder Star of Asia
- Singhalese blue star sapphire of 224 carats.
 


Yousopouff pearl - A large 480-grain pearl said to have been the largest on record. It was brought from India in 1620 and was sold to Philip IV of Spain, subsequently passing into the possession of the Russian Princess Yousopouff.

 


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